Biodegradable and absorbable biopolymer materials can give full play to their functions in vivo for a period of time. After a period of time, they begin to degrade and lose their original functions. Their degradation products are absorbed or discharged from the body after metabolism. Because biodegradable and absorbable biopolymers do not need to be removed by surgery again, they will be widely used in implantations that require temporary presence. It is mainly used in surgical sutures, surgical isolation materials, artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, bone fixation and repair, tissue engineering carrier and drug-controlled release and other fields. According to their sources, biodegradable and absorbable biopolymers can be divided into natural and synthetic types. Natural materials refer to macromolecules from animals, plants or human body, such as cellulose, chitin, starch, lignin, alginate and other natural polysaccharide materials; collagen, fibrinogen and other natural protein materials.
Synthesis of biodegradable polymer synthetic biodegradable absorption biopolymer materials by controlling the process conditions, has repeatability, can also be mass production, and through simple physical and chemical modification can obtain a wide range of properties to meet different needs, so the application of synthetic biodegradable absorption biopolymer materials is more extensive. There are mainly poly - α - hydroxy acid, poly - anhydride, poly - α - amino acid and aliphatic polyester. Biodegradation refers to the fact that materials are continuously discharged from the body in the process of tissue growth through dissolution, enzymolysis and cell phagocytosis. The repaired tissue completely replaces the position of the implanted material, and the material has no residual property in the body.